Tuesday, 22 October 2013
Treatment of Hypokalemia in Children
Potassium less than 3.5 mEq / L but not less than 3 mEq / L
In general it is sufficient to increase the contribution to 1 or 2 mEq per 100 mL of water intake calculated as if fasting or potassium salts administered orally if this diet.
Potassium Less than 3 mEq / L but not less than 2 mEq / L
Check with serum determination
Taking electrocardiogram tracing if 12 lead better.
If hypokalemia data with electrocardiographic effect, administer potassium to 0.5 mEq per kg of body weight diluted in 100 mL 4mEq SSF for peripherally to 1 mEq plus 5 mL of SSF if the patient is fluid restriction and has central catheter .
Potassium less than 2 mEq / L
Check potassium levels
Take ECG and ECG changes secondary to verify hipokelemia.
Administer 1 mEq potassium per kg, for each mEq of potassium calculated, add 5 mL of 0.9% saline or 5% glucose solution or double-distilled water for central line and up to 4 mEq / l by the peripheral route.
Not everything ends there, you should increase the amount of potassium in parenteral solutions, between 1-2 mEq per 100 mL of solution administered.
Always after each load of potassium should be checked a new ECG tracing and blood levels.
Analyze each particular case, for example patients with amphotericin require high potassium contributions due to an increase in glomerular membrane permeability to this ion, we have had cases in which potassium intake can reach 150-200 mEq m2sc .
Keep magnesium levels within normal limits, as the conditions hypomagnesemia renal potassium loss.